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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 94-95

CSIR- Institute of genomics and integrative biology

Genomics and Molecular Medicine, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication22-May-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shantanu Sengupta
Room No. 201, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Sukhdev Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi - 110 020
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2395-5414.157588

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How to cite this article:
Pasha Q, Sivasubbu S, Sengupta S. CSIR- Institute of genomics and integrative biology. J Pract Cardiovasc Sci 2015;1:94-5

How to cite this URL:
Pasha Q, Sivasubbu S, Sengupta S. CSIR- Institute of genomics and integrative biology. J Pract Cardiovasc Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Mar 24];1:94-5. Available from: http://www.j-pcs.org/text.asp?2015/1/1/94/157588

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB) is a premier Institute of the CSIR, engaged in research of national importance in the areas of genomics, molecular medicine, bioinformatics, proteomics and environmental biotechnology. The Institute has evolved from the Centre for Biochemical Technology to the current twin campuses adopting new directions with changing times and yet not losing sight of its mission: To translate concepts developed in basic biological research to commercially viable technologies for healthcare. The main research areas include: Genomics and molecular medicine, respiratory disease biology, genome informatics and structural biology, energy and environmental biotechnology, chemical and systems biology, ayurgenomics.

The institute has a lean structure with about 50 research groups that work in specialized areas and collaborate extensively in core areas of national importance identified by CSIR as well as cutting edge areas that have brought international visibility. One of the IGIB's main contributions has been in mapping Indian genome variation through a large multi-institutional effort that helped identify many genes that predispose us to diseases, differential response to drugs and enabled genomics studies of complex disorders. IGIB has also proven its mettle in personalized medicine by sequencing the first Indian genome. This core expertise in genomics is complemented by several groups at IGIB that work on diverse human diseases ranging from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), metabolic dysfunction, diabetes and neuro-psychiatric disorders. Understanding the biology of pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, both from the perspective of the pathogen and the host cell is expected to provide new insights into communicable diseases. The ambience of inter-disciplinary science that facilitates study of nucleic acid chemistry in molecular biology, lipids in the context of microbial pathogenesis and bioinformatics to understand genome evolution is core strength of the Institute. IGIB has also shown its capability in technology development through commercialization of solutions for water treatment.

In the area of CVDs, there are three major groups working toward understanding the biology of the disease and identifying potential markers for various CVDs like atherosclerosis and hypertension that are the most prevalent. Various factors including genetic predisposition, metabolic diseases and age, augment occurrence of these diseases. The primary focus of Dr. M.A.Q. Pasha's lab has been to elucidate markers that may be associated with essential hypertension (EH). They have extensively studied and established significant association of genetic variants associated with EH in a case-control design. They also studied the intragenic and intergenic interactions of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). They also performed extensive correlation analyses of these variants with relevant clinical and biochemical parameters to deduce their relevance in EH. In addition to candidate gene approach and in their quest to identify novel SNPs, they performed a genome wide association study for EH amongst high altitude natives. The initial results of association study have provided some interesting results that reveal how variants may contribute to the clinical endpoints of hypertension via oxidant and antioxidant redox imbalance and thus to EH pathophysiology. Among their current interest, apart from EH, genetic studies are being performed in acute coronary syndrome, coronary slow flow and rheumatic heart disease. The relative contribution of various genetic markers in different CVD will provide insights into a number of physiological and morphological changes that alter cardiovascular function and lead to increased risk of CVD.

Dr. Sridhar Sivasubbu's group have established zebrafish as a model system of choice for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying noncoding RNA mediated regulation of vascular and cardiovascular development. Work in their laboratories has established the role of several noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs in the development and maintenance of vascular and cardiovascular system in zebrafish. In a separate study, the group undertook a forward genetics screen using a conditional in vivo protein-trap mutagenesis system in zebrafish. The in vivo protein-trap revealed spatiotemporal protein expression dynamics for evaluating gene function. From this screen, they identified putative mutant zebrafish that display defects in the vascular and cardiovascular system. These putative mutant zebrafish are templates for understanding new vascular and cardiovascular biology. The zebrafish facility at IGIB contains over 100 tissue specific transgenic lines that aid their research.

Dr. Sivasubbu also investigates human patients samples suffering from rare genetic disorders including cardiac disorders for identifying novel mutations using whole exome and genome sequencing approaches. The novel human mutations are subjected to functional validation of appropriate zebrafish models using genome-editing tools. Toward this, they have built an array of resources for conducting whole exome and genome studies in human and zebrafish.

One of the groups led by Dr. Shantanu Sengupta is involved in identifying potential biomarkers in CVDs using genetic, epigenetic and proteomic approaches. The lab has integrated genetic, biochemical and proteomic approaches and has developed methodologies to clinically establish relevance of markers in disease biology. They were the first to show that coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with hypermethylation of DNA, which is further accentuated by elevated homocysteine levels. Further, using a plasma proteomics approach they have also identified 4 proteins in the plasma that along with hypertension and diabetes could account for approximately 88% of the CAD cases. Their aim is to establish an interesting link between nutritional status, epigenetic modifications, role of thiols and their association with CVDs. To this end, their work has provided new insights into the understanding of the role of homocysteine and cysteine amino acids and its association with CAD. It has revealed an interesting correlation between deficiency in Vitamin B 12 and CAD. Using a rat B 12 deficient model they have shown that maternal B 12 deficiency could potentially increase the risk of offsprings toward CVDs. Using both proteomics and MeDIP-seq (for whole genome DNA methylation) approach they have shown that Vitamin B 12 deficiency deregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (α and γ) thereby leading to high triglyceride levels. This study seeks to illuminate the phenomenon of the trans-generational inheritance via in utero epigenetic reprogramming.

This environment at CSIR-IGIB provides a unique opportunity for hundreds of aspiring students to participate in academic and training programs and several young researchers to initiate their research careers through independent fellowships. For more information visit www.igib.res.in


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