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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 76-80

Pseudo-resistant, resistant, and refractory hypertension: The good, the bad, and the ugly


Department of Cardiology, All Institution of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Dibbendhu Khanra
Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpcs.jpcs_31_19

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Resistant Hypertension (RH) not uncommon in daily clinical practice but is often loosely coined. Accuracy of BP measurement, Adherence to prescribed medications and Adequacy of prescribed dosages are to be ensured before diagnosing RH. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring are becoming standard of care in evaluation of RH patients. Management of RH in recent years has been evolved and spiranolactone has become the fourth drug when combination of Renin-Angiotensin system blockers, calcium channel blockers and long acting thiazide like diuretics fail. Scores like PFK comprising of Urinary pH>7, Female Sex, K<3.5 mg/dl has been handy in decision making to start spiranolactone. However, Refractory Hypertension (RfH) has been defined when five anti-hypertensive drugs including spiranolactone fail and has been emerging to be a novel phenotype. RH patients are known to be volume dependent whereas RfH patients are known to have sympathetic overdrive. Management strategy of RfH is challenging and beta-blockers or alpha-blockers may be of role in these subset. Renal artery denervation is being resurrected with newer evidence and definitely an option for RfH patients. Novel therapies like Barroreceptor Activation Techniques and Central iliac arteriovenous anastomosis are being evaluated in resistant and refractory hypertension patients.


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