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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 162-168

A prospective single center study to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with cardiorenal syndrome with respect to its subtypes


Department of Cardiology, MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nagamalesh Udigala Madappa
Department of Cardiology, MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Health Sciences, Bengaluru - 560 054, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpcs.jpcs_57_20

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Background: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is an evolving complex clinical condition of cardiac–renal dysfunction, for which incidence and risk factors remain to be fully assessed in the Indian subcontinent. The study determined the incidence of and risk factors for CRS and its impact on in-hospital mortality and readmission in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This single-center prospective observational study included 158 patients with CRS. Sociodemographic, laboratory, and echocardiography parameters were recorded. Heart failure and acute–chronic kidney injuries were diagnosed, and the patients were accordingly classified. Data were statistically analyzed using software R version 3.6.3 and Microsoft Excel. Results: The study included 106 (67.1%) and 52 (32.9%) males and females, respectively, with a mean age of 62.87 ± 13.99 years. Eighty-five (53.8%) patients suffered from CRS Type 1. Dyspnea (n = 149) was the most common complaint. Diabetes mellitus (DM), rheumatic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic kidney disease were the common risk factors. Conclusion: In South India, CRS is associated with increasing age; hypertension; DM; relevant cardiovascular and kidney diseases; abnormal levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium, and albumin; and low estimated glomerular filtration rate, leading to poor patient outcomes. CRS Type 2 results in relatively less stability, high readmissions with heart failure, and higher mortality in patients. Given the diverse cultural background of India, the study proposes that although CRS is clinically diagnosed, it remains poorly characterized in India, mainly in South India. The present study found that COPD affects CRS, which is a rare finding.


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