CURRICULUM IN CARDIOLOGY - HISTORY OF MEDICINE
Year : 2019 | Volume
: 5 | Issue : 1 | Page : 53--54
Christian andreas doppler
Shivani Vashistha, Soumi Das
Department of Cardiology, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
Dr. Soumi Das
Department of Cardiology, AIIMS, New Delhi
CA Doppler described the doppler effect which was a shift in the frequency of light. This theory was later used for multiple applications in electromagnetics, astronomy, physics, aviation and health sciences. The “Doppler effect” is used extensively in cardiology.
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Vashistha S, Das S. Christian andreas doppler.J Pract Cardiovasc Sci 2019;5:53-54
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Vashistha S, Das S. Christian andreas doppler. J Pract Cardiovasc Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 4 ];5:53-54
Available from: http://www.j-pcs.org/text.asp?2019/5/1/53/257593
Christian Andreas Doppler was born in Salzburg, Austria, on November 29, 1803. His father was a stonemason, and he was expected to join the family business, but due to his poor health condition, he persuaded academics. He graduated in physics from the Polytechnical Institute of Vienna in 1825 and later, he went to the University of Vienna to study mathematics, machines, and astronomy. At the end of his study, he has worked with Professor Burg for 4 years and in 1831, he published his first paper “A contribution to the theory of parallels.” Unfortunately, for many years, he failed to get an academic position, so he supported himself by working as a bookkeeper at a cotton factory near the city of Bruck. He was disappointed and decided to move to the USA where he was offered a position as a professor at the Technical Secondary School in Prague and later at the polytechnic school. In 1836, he married Mathilda Sturm and together the couple had five children.
In 1842, at a meeting of the Natural Science Section of the Royal Bohemian Society in Prague, he presented his famous work Über das farbige Licht der Doppelsterne (Concerning the Colored Light of Double Stars), which was later published in 1843. This was his first work which stated the Doppler effect – that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer. In 1944, due to his deteriorating health, he was forced to take sick leave and later in 1946, he could resume back to his duties. In 1947, he left Prague and moved to Chemnitz in Germany as professor of mathematics, physics, and mechanics at the Academy of Mines and Forests. Due to industrial problems, Doppler's family was forced to move to Vienna where he was appointed as the director of the Physical Institute in 1850. By this time, his health again started deteriorating, and he started suffering from chest pain and breathing problem, with symptoms like tuberculosis. In 1952, he traveled to Venice, Italy, for a better climate, but his health did not improve and finally on March 17, 1853, he died of pulmonary disease in his wife's arm.
Christian Doppler in 1842 did not know that his investigation in the field of astronomy will be used in health care. Doppler echocardiography was not in use till the 1970s until Holen et al. and Hatle et al. refined the technique for clinical use. Doppler effect is an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other. In echocardiography, the moving red blood cells and the myocardial tissues and structures are the targets. When an ultrasound beam is directed toward these moving targets, the transducer determines the frequency shift (Δf) which is the difference between the transmitted frequency of the transducer (ft) and the received frequency (fr). The frequency shift is related to the velocity of the moving target (v), transmitted frequency (ft), and the angle between the direction of ultrasound beam and the direction of the moving target, which is similar to the Doppler equation. The information that is obtained from Doppler echocardiography is flow velocity, direction of the flow, the timing of the signal with the cardiac events, and intensity of the flow. There are two forms of Doppler echocardiography: the pulse wave and continuous wave.
The pulse-wave Doppler samples velocity in a particular site in the form of a pulse; therefore, limited range information can be picked up. Color Doppler is based on pulse-wave Doppler and is mainly used to pick up valvular disease.
Continuous-wave Doppler transmits and receives continuous signals from moving red blood cells. Continuous-wave Doppler is used in the evaluation of valve stenosis or regurgitation and indirectly, it is used in determining the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure.
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