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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: Illustration of the possible pathways by which anthracyclines can cause cardiotoxicity. Na+: Sodium ion, GSSG: Oxidized glutathione, K+: Potassium ion, O2: Oxygen-free radical, Ca2+: Calcium ion, HO: Hydroxy-free radical, P: Phosphate, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase, TOPO II: Topoisomerase-II, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, ERB: Estrogen receptor beta, GSH: Reduced glutathione, ONOO: Peroxynitrite.

Figure 2: Illustration of the possible pathways by which anthracyclines can cause cardiotoxicity. Na<sup>+</sup>: Sodium ion, GSSG: Oxidized glutathione, K<sup>+</sup>: Potassium ion, O<sub>2</sub>: Oxygen-free radical, Ca2<sup>+</sup>: Calcium ion, HO: Hydroxy-free radical, P: Phosphate, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase, TOPO II: Topoisomerase-II, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, ERB: Estrogen receptor beta, GSH: Reduced glutathione, ONOO: Peroxynitrite.