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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 123-131

Basic principles of sample size calculation


Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication27-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shivam Pandey
Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpcs.jpcs_34_20

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  Abstract 


The calculation of sample size helps a medical researcher to assess cost, time, and feasibility of his project besides scientific justification and validity. Although frequently reported in journals, the details or the elements of sample size calculation are not consistently provided by the authors. Sample size calculations reported do not match with replication of sample size in many studies. Most trials with negative results do not have a large enough sample size. Hence, reporting of sample size and power needs to be improved. The sample size calculation can be guided by previous literature, pilot studies, and past clinical experiences. The collaborative effort of the researcher and the statistician is required at this stage. Estimated sample size is our best guess. Issues such as anticipated loss to follow-up, large subgroup analysis, and complicated study designs, demand a large sample size to ensure power throughout the trial. The present article will help the reader understand the importance of pilot study in sample size estimation, second understand the relationship between primary objective and sample size of a study, third understand the essential components required in a sample size estimation, and fourth calculate sample sizes using real-life examples using an online software.

Keywords: Loss to follow-up, sample size, trials


How to cite this article:
Pandey S. Basic principles of sample size calculation. J Pract Cardiovasc Sci 2020;6:123-31

How to cite this URL:
Pandey S. Basic principles of sample size calculation. J Pract Cardiovasc Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Aug 1];6:123-31. Available from: https://www.j-pcs.org/text.asp?2020/6/2/123/293530

Read associated Retraction Notice: https://www.j-pcs.org/article.asp?issn=2395-5414;year=2020;volume=6;issue=3;spage=303;epage=303;aulast=

This article has been Retracted,






 

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