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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 24-30

COVID-19 and cardiac health: A review


1 Department of Cardiology, Sreechitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
2 Department of Cardiovascular Radiology and Endovascular Interventions, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Medicine, Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Avinash Mani
Department of Cardiology, Sreechitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 011, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpcs.jpcs_90_20

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The ongoing novel coronavirus pandemic has caused a serious impact on patients suffering from cardiovascular disorders as they are predisposed to COVID infection as well as to exacerbation of their preexisting conditions which can prove to be fatal. Novel coronavirus disease-2019 (nCOVID-19) has a varied effect on the cardiac system ranging from myocardial injury to thromboembolic complications. A significant proportion of patients are noted to have comorbidities. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) receptor is considered the target of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). SARS-Cov-2 leads to imbalance in RAAS activity which is responsible for target organ damage. Recombinant ACE 2 has been shown to restore ACE 2 levels in explanted hearts and restore balanced RAAS activity. nCOVID-19 can have varied cardiac manifestations ranging from acute coronary syndrome to heart failure, arrhythmias, pulmonary thromboembolism, and pericarditis. The current nCOVID-19 pandemic has led to changes in management strategies for cardiovascular diseases. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction can be fibrinolysed when a primary percutaneous coronary intervention facility with adequate protection is not available. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker needs to be continued in patients with hypertension. Continuity of care for patients with chronic cardiovascular illness needs to be maintained. Management of cardiovascular emergencies needs to be done in a way which ensures the safety of health-care professionals and prevents infection transmission. Strict prevention of infection and health control measures will help to prevent spread of infection and reduce disease incidence.


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