|LETTER TO THE EDITOR
|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 191-192
Ehlers–Danlos syndrome Type VI with mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation
Sourya Acharya1, Sandeep Kamat2, Samarth Shukla3, Anamika Giri1, Sunil Kumar1
1 Department of Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, India
2 Department of Cardiology, Nair Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Pathology, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, India
|Date of Submission||27-Jul-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||27-Nov-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||20-Dec-2022|
Department of Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Acharya S, Kamat S, Shukla S, Giri A, Kumar S. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome Type VI with mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation. J Pract Cardiovasc Sci 2022;8:191-2
|How to cite this URL:|
Acharya S, Kamat S, Shukla S, Giri A, Kumar S. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome Type VI with mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation. J Pract Cardiovasc Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Mar 20];8:191-2. Available from: https://www.j-pcs.org/text.asp?2022/8/3/191/364543
| Introduction|| |
Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of rare genetic disorders affecting connective tissue. EDS is characterized by several clinical features such as hyperextensibility of the skin, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility of the body tissues. The general frequency of EDSs is 1 in 5000. The international classification of EDS recognizes 13 subtypes. Although clinical diagnostic criteria have been laid down, still patients may have superimposed clinical features of different types. The cardiac-valvular EDS is a subtype where cardiac valves (mitral, aortic) undergo myxomatous degeneration leading to regurgitation.
Cardiac abnormalities such as mitral valve prolapse (MVP) are reported to be common features of EDS, and it has been suggested that the majority of patients with type IV EDS will have cardiac involvement and vascular aneurysms.
EDS type VI which is also known as ocular type is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder. Lysyl hydroxylase deficiency leads to a decrease in both the hydroxylysine content of collagen and the cross-links in collagen fibers. The ocular abnormalities are blue sclera and keratoconus.
Here, we report a rare case of EDS type VI with cardiac anomalies and blue sclera along with the other usual characteristic clinical features.
| Case Report|| |
A 16-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department of this hospital with chief complaints of palpitations. On examination, she had hyperextensible joints, arachnodactyly, facial dysmorphism, and blue sclera [Figure 1]. Cardiac auscultation revealed a grade IV/VI pansystolic murmur at the apex radiating to the left axilla. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed MVP [Figure 2] and color Doppler showed severe mitral regurgitation [Figure 3]. Mitral valve replacement with tricuspid annuloplasty was planned.
|Figure 1: Hyperextensible joints, arachnodactyly, blue sclera, and facial dysmorphism.|
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|Figure 2: 2D echo showing mitral valve prolapse with mitral regurgitation. 2D: Two-dimensional.|
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|Figure 3: 2D echo showing the mitral regurgitant jet. 2D: Two-dimensional.|
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| Discussion|| |
Connective tissue disorders known as EDSs can be inherited and range widely in their genetic causes as well as how they impact the body. There are now 13 subtypes in the classification system for EDSs. Each EDS subtype has a set of clinical criteria that aid in diagnosis; the most appropriate subtype will be determined by matching a patient's physical symptoms and signs to both the major and minor criteria. With the exception of hypermobile EDS (hEDS), all EDS subtypes require confirmation by molecular testing because there is a significant symptom overlap between them and the other connective tissue illnesses, such as hypermobility spectrum disorders. However, a provisional diagnosis can be made just based on clinical signs and symptoms.,
Cardiac variant of EDS can be diagnosed based on severe progressive cardiac-valvular problems (aortic valve and mitral valve) along with skin hyperextensibility and joint hypermobility, whereas ocular variant of EDS can be diagnosed based on thin cornea, keratoconus, keratoglobus, and blue sclera.,,
A final diagnosis requires confirmation through molecular testing. Cardiac manifestations are more common in patients with EDS type IV, whereas ocular manifestations are more common in EDS type VI. It is very rare to have a patient which has EDS with both cardiac and ocular manifestations. Our case report highlights such a rare case.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given her consent for her images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that her name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal her identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]